Giant Panda Going Abroad by Western Hunter and as Gift Overseas Cooperation of Panda Research

 Panda going abroad by western people hunter and as state gift, overseas research between foreign organization and China research center nature reserve in protection of panda bears.

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Da xiong mao, the Chinese name for the giant panda means "great bear cat". Chinese books, written over 3,000 years ago, talk of the giant panda. Even then, it was believed to be endowed with mystical powers capable of warding off natural disasters and evil spirits. The scientific name for giant pandas, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, simply means black and white bear.

Sichuan is the home to almost all pandas sent to abroad. Most from Sichuan Baoxing for state gift. and the most from Sichuan Wolong for exchange, 2nd from Sichuan Chengdu base for exchange in researching. 

There are 3 sections for pandas' exchange between China and the Western (going abroad):
1st Section, before 1949, most of pandas brought abroad by animal hunters. The founding of the People's Republic of China ended the history of foreign plundering of giant pandas.
2nd Section, from 1953 to 1982, as ambassadors, 23 giant pandas were sent abroad overseas as state gifts to 9 countries, total 24 pandas sent to abroad (one of them for exchange in 1958).
3rd Section, from 1990 to now, the China Wildlife Conservation Association (CWCA) and China Zoological Association reached an agreement with the International Wildlife Conservation Agency to loan giant pandas in pairs to overseas countries for 10 years for cooperative research with Chinese scientists; these pandas and their children remain the property of China, annual fees of USD 1 million should be paid to China. From then on, pandas go abroad to for fees, but the fees different to various countries.

There is only one way now to raise panda: Exchange for Cooperative Research. If China agree, then the report must be signed by China State Premier after set up a contract between China and Foreign country with pre-signatures from Construction Ministry, Forests Ministry and Foreign Affairs Ministry of China. Before the panda go abroad, the Chinese experts and scientists and panda keeper will do investigate the environment, and panda house, as well as train the local staff.

At the end of 2005, only 24 pandas live abroad. But only 7 are foreign citizenship who are the offspring of pandas sent abroad till 1982: 2 in Japan, 3 in Mexico, 2 in Germany. The other 17 pandas with China Citizenship, some of their birthplace locates where they live in foreign country, now the 17 pandas live abroad as: 9 in USA, 4 in Japan, 2 in Austria, 2 in Thailand.

So to the end of 2005, 24 pandas raised as: America 9;   Austria 2;     Germany 2;   Japan 6;   Mexico 3;  Thailand 2.   

First Section  Hunting

1869 The first Westerner to describe a giant panda was probably French missionary and naturalist Père Armand David, who wrote of a "fine skin of the famous white and black bear" in his journal, and found it in Fengtongzhai.

1916 German zoologist Hugo Weigold is credited as the first Westerner to see a live giant panda–a cub he bought while part of the Stoetzner Expedition to China and Tibet (the cub died shortly afterward).

1920s The Chicago Field Museum funded an expedition to China led by Kermit and Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. (sons of President Theodore Roosevelt). The wild giant panda they shot was among the first specimen exhibited in the U.S.

1934 William Harkness, an adventurer, set off to China to capture giant pandas. Although he died within a year, in 1936 his wife Ruth (a New York fashion designer) and her party found Su-Lin, a three-pound giant panda cub, in the wild and brought her to the United States. Su-Lin found a home at Chicago’s Brookfield Zoo, where she won the hearts of an adoring American public.

1938 Ruth Harkness brought another panda, Mei-Mei, from China to the Brookfield Zoo where it survived until 1942.

1938 The New York Zoological Society brought the giant panda Pandora to the Bronx Zoo.

1939 The Brookfield Zoo acquired its third giant panda, Mei-Lan.

1939 The St. Louis Zoo joined the select list of U.S. zoos with giant pandas when they brought Happy and Pao-Pei to the Midwest.

1941 Pan Dee and Pan Dah were donated to the Bronx Zoo by Madame Chaing Kai-shek in gratitude for relief aid. They died in 1945 and 1951.

Second Section  State Gift

1957, giant panda Ping Ping was sent to the former Soviet Union, the 1st panda as state gift sent abroad.

1958, Jiji, female, died in 1971. An Austrian animal businessman exchanged three giraffes, 2 rhinoceroses and other animals, including hippo, zebra with Beijing Zoo for panda Jiji, and later lived in London Zoo.

1959, An An followed to Soviet Union.

1965 and 1980, 5 pandas sent to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea: Dan Dan, Sangxing, Lingling etc.

1972, a couple of pandas, Lingling, Xingxing were sent to the USA.

1972, Lan Lan (female, died in 1979) and Kangkang (male, died in 1980) were sent to Japan.

1973, Yan Yan and Li Li sent to France.

1974, Jia Jia and Jingjing sent to Britain.

1974, Tiantian and Baobao sent to Germany.

1975, Yingying and Beibei sent to Mexico.

1978, Shao Shao and Qiang Qiang sent to Spain.

1980, Huanhuan, female, sent to Japan.

1982, Feifei, male, sent to Japan. The latest panda sent oversea as state gift.

Till 2005, most of above pandas died, with their offspring, now only 7 remains: 2 in Japan, 3 in Mexico, 2 in Germany.

Third Section   cooperative research

1994, Yongming sent to Kobe, Japan.

1996. Shishi and Baiyun to the San Diego Zoo, USA.

2000, Meimei sent to Japan.

2000, 06 Dec, Tiantian and Meixiang to Washington Zoo in USA

2003, on 14Jan, Goagao sent to USA while the Shishi back to China.

2003, on 13Mar, Yangyang and Longhui to Austria.

2003, on 12Oct, Chuangchuang and Linghui to Tailand.

2011, 04 Dec,  Tiantian / female, and Yangguang / male to Britain from Chengdu.

2012, 15 Jan, Panda Huan Huan and Yuan Zai fly to France from Chengdu
Yuan Zai, male, born on 06 Sep 2008, weight 77 km, Pedigree No. 736.   Huan Huan, female, born on 10 Aug 2008, weight 78 km, Pedigree No. 723.


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